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Bitcoin/Blockchain Technology/Cryptocurrency/Uncategorized

Decentralised Community-based Networks and the teachings of a Wood Wide Web

Decentralised Community-based Networks and the teachings of a Wood Wide Web

By Daniel S. COVACICH, Chief Data Officer, Braincities Lab

It is not surprising that plants move with purpose. They are aware of what is going on around them. To respond correctly to the responsive environment, plants need sophisticated sensing devices that are finely tuned to the surroundings varying conditions. These conditions can vary in unpredictable ways, for example changing the acidity of the soil and making minerals more valuable and more difficult to extract.
This has been well documented. Many Time-Lapse | Short Films are available on YouTube and BBC documentaries. It is evident that the plants move with a purpose and grow towards the sunny places etc. In fact, the whole value of James Cameron’s movie Avatar resides in the exploitation of this concept.

But what happens underneath the soil?

It is really a race. A race where competitors not only fight for the best spots but also collaborate to survive. This collaboration takes the form of a real stock exchange of goods where not only valuable products are purchased with liquid currency but also services are contracted at the cost of a fee.

A groundbreaking study published back in 1997 [1] showed that plants feed mostly by utilizing symbiont fungal organisms known as mycelium fungi. These are possibly the largest organisms known to science, and they are responsible for exploring the soil, find hidden reserves of nutrients and exchange them to the roots of plants and trees through a complex system of interconnected filaments.

In modern words, they provide an exchange network as a service. At first glance, this might sound like a capitalistic system i.e. a marketplace of plantae that has been going on for millions of years. A 2006 study estimates that fungi and plants have been interacting for over 400 million years, and since then, fungi have formed relations with around 80% of all the plant species [2].

So, is this really the free market of the kingdom of plantae? Did biologists just track down the neoliberalism model back to its roots? (no pun intended)

The Mycelia allows ‘stock exchanges’ between trees by means of a sophisticated filament network that extends itself underneath the soil.

Actually, scientists today are starting to understand how complex this relation can become. Let me begin with a short story.

Let me begin with a short story.

It happens in a North American forest, during summer, paper birch trees send nutrients and sugars to overshadowed pine trees. This might seem unexplainable, why and how this type of tree bothers to help another one that lives meters away?

The reason is, during in winter the pine tree pays back to the birch tree due to its ability to photosynthesise during this period of the year. Basically, they have signed a type of ‘smart contract’ that operates over the mycelium network.

As someone might expect, the network provider will charge ‘sugars’ fees for the service, which will allow the mycelium network to grow in size and create new connections with other neighbours in a self-sustainable manner.

The more scientists dig into this network, they call the Wood Wide Web, the more surprising it gets. This WWW is not only a platform for currency and goods exchange but also a decentralised social network [3].

Yes, trees talk to each other.

For example, when a tree is being attacked by a swarm of bugs, electrochemical messages are posted in the mycelia social network so neighbouring trees can release insect-repelling chemicals to raise their defense levels [4].

Analogously, the mycelium network also provides a high-quality healthcare system. This allows the exchange of anti-inflammatories, anti-bacterial and/or antivirals with the affected tree.

The mycelium network connects individuals forming a community. In this way, jungles and forest can be re-interpreted as single massive super-organisms.

No matter how fantastic this might sound, it is certain that the underlying network creates a thriving community between individuals: older trees help seedlings grow faster and stronger, dying trees will donate their accumulated nutrients to the community, affine species will benefit from the specific exchange of information, sugars, antivirals, etc, forming real federations.

In such a federative environment, there are “mother trees” that serve as network connection hubs. These federation operators are in charge of taking care of younger trees, accelerate the distribution and propagation of warning signals, mediate fluxes of enzymes to decompose plant and animal debris, recycle garbage, oil spills, wastewater, etc.

A “mother tree” can be seen as a network connection hub, a federation operator that help seedlings grow faster and stronger while distributing more efficiently nutrients and information to other members of the community.

Community and federation analogies can go on and on, but at this point, something is certain: life preservation is not only a matter of competition but collaboration. And for over 400 million years plants have achieved it with the help of mycelia: a community based decentralised exchange network.

Nature always surprises us with its creativity.

When the Internet broke out to the world back in the 90s, no one questioned that this technology was the exclusive result of human cleverness and capabilities. Who would have thought that we were millions of years behind in terms of connectivity and goods exchange technologies?

It is clear that we can learn many things from the results of millions of years of evolution if we look underneath our feet. Understanding and replicating some of the functionalities of mycelia networks gives us a good starting point on how a community based self-sustainable exchange network should operate.

Maybe it is time to change the paradigm of how our decentralised networks should behave. We have to acknowledge that collaborative individuals interacting with their ecosystem become members of an integral community that should be looked after. In this sense, services should be distributed in such a way that the exchange of goods and information can allow the number of connections to grow while preserving the sustainability and health of the network itself.

Perhaps the starting point is to completely discard the obsolete idea of survival of the fittest and see evolution as a global collaborative endeavour. After all, our planet has been alive for long enough. It can be seen as a large interconnected super-organism, and humans imitating some of its underlying functions at different scales, are nothing more than this super-organism fractally replicating itself.

To know more about how community and federative decentralised networks work, see the following publication:

How and Why Build a Federative Ecosystem Using Datachain Infrastructure.

References and further reading on the Wood Wide Web:

[1] Smith SE, Read DJ. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. London, UK: Academic Press; 1997. For a more modern review see:


[2] At the Root of the Wood Wide Web. Giovannetti, M., Avio, L., Fortuna, P., Pellegrino, E., Sbrana, C., & Strani, P. (2006). At the root of the wood wide web: self recognition and non-self incompatibility in mycorrhizal networks. Plant signaling & behavior, 1(1), 1–5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2633692/

[3] Wohlleben, P. (2016). The hidden life of trees: What they feel, how they communicate — Discoveries from a secret world. Greystone Books.

[4] Z. Babikova, et al. Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack, Ecology Letters 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23656527

Bitcoin/Blockchain Technology/Cryptocurrency

Data forgery, The Biggest Threat to AI & the Digital Economy

Data forgery, The Biggest Threat to AI & the Digital Economy

ICO Crowd
ICO Crowd is the world’s first and foremost publication on Initial Coin Offerings (ICO).

Data forgery, The Biggest Threat to AI & the Digital Economy

Today’s Biggest threat to AI and the digital economy is data forgery and Blockchain may help solve it.

According to Vernon Turner, senior vice president at IDC, by 2025, approximately 80 billion devices will be connected to the Internet genérating over 180 zettabytes of data.

All the data generated by the IoT will dramatically expose private and sensitive information to attackers. The gap between the volume of data produced today that requires a certain level of security and the amount of data secured is huge, and this gap will grow 100 times. A major threat in an AI-powered world driven by data.

Approximately 11 billion devices are connected to the Internet today. We are already familiar with digital assistants, self-driving cars are coming, humanoid robots are popping up in every bank, 4D factories are being built all over the world relying on the data produced by their sensors and their environments.
The figure should triple to 30 billion by 2020, before tripling again to 80 billion five years later. 90% of all data created by this interoperable and interconnected network of networks will require some level of security, but less than 50% will be secured (30% today).

Here is the problem, how to create a trustful and sustainable society if the information used by people and machines is not 100% reliable?

It is not only about securing data storage. It is about creating a secured stream for the data fueling AI and other autonomous systems to guarantee the integrity and the resilience of the data used for services, decision making, driverless cars, healthcare, energy production, manufacturing, education, finance, cryptocurrency analysis and many more…

“Current solutions focus on keeping hackers outside critical systems, but attacks like the one that took down the power grid in Ukraine clearly show that sophisticated attackers will eventually penetrate these systems,” said Bergerbest-Eilon. “Once attackers breach a system, they must blind the operators and protection mechanisms by falsifying data in order to inflict severe and long-lasting damage.” Thus we need to rethink Data Forgery Protection (DFP) as it is the key to keep autonomous devices and AI secured, accurate and relevant.

WHY SHOULD IT BE A CONCERN FOR EVERY AI FOCUSED STARTUP? Well, AI eats data. Poor food means weak AI, irrelevant analysis and useless outcomes.

Data integrity is key. In fact, IDC estimates that by 2025, nearly 20% of the data in the global datasphere will be critical to our daily lives and nearly 10% of that will be hypercritical.

We all agree that AI is reshaping the world in an unprecedented way as it leverages the power of the data contained in business siloed databases and peoples daily life, to uncover meaningful stories. It brings the why, the what and the when. What would happen if the data were falsified. Would a recruiter make the right choice? Would investors choose the right business opportunities, would the judges sentence the right person?
Building a sustainable and trustful society requires AI and context-aware recommendation systems using data sources decorrelated from the current www soup.

At BRAINCITIES Lab, we are developing a new generation of artificial intelligence. The first autonomous system with judging and empathy capabilities. BRAINCITIES is a predictive and subjective autonomous system that can identify a pattern within a context. Our technology relies on a live data streaming platform using Blockchain key properties to secure and retrace data integrity. Our DATACHAIN aims to fill a security breach in the data storage and data streaming industries. We provide a secured decentralized data storage solution making data injection impossible, to ensure point to point data integrity. Our solution is designed for a data-driven world where AI will have to process Zettabytes of data in real time to provide accurate and relevant context-aware recommendations.
OUR MISSION: 2 Protecting the data used by AI from data forgery. 2 Shaping people and cities for the AI-driven data farmers era. 2 Making use of robots as a platform and alternative to the workforce global automation.
ABOUT BRAINCITIES Founded in 2013, BRAINCITIES is a french startup based in Paris 9th. The company is specialized in Artificial Intelligence and Data science.

BRAINCITIES bridges the gap between Humans and their ever-changing environments by making ecosystems like Cities and Companies Smarter With its Human-Supportive Artificial Intelligence.

Bitcoin/Blockchain Technology/Cryptocurrency

It is an open and distributed

It is an open and distributed

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Bitcoin network data A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called which are linked and secured using cryptography. Each block typically contains.

For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority.

A blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is “an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable & permanent way”.

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Blockchains are secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with Byzantine fault tolerance.